Fragmentation of mucosalivary fluid
Fragmentation of mucosalivary fluid during a sneeze showing initial sheet formation and stretching (left); sheet piercing, resulting in sheet retraction in a rim, itself destabilizing into ligaments and beads on a string (middle); and ultimately the formation of droplets (right). The top view (bottom row) clearly highlights the sheets, their rupture into ligaments, and then finally the viscoelastic dynamics of extension and beads on a string, leading to the final selection of droplets via unsteady fragmentation.
Scharfman, B. E., Techet, A. H., Bush, J. W. M. and Bourouiba, L. (2016) Experiments in Fluids. 57:24--1-9.
Bourouiba, L. (2021) The fluid dynamics of disease transmission. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 53:473-508.